National Survey of Sports Teams
Appendix II: Data Tables on Athletes Most at Risk

At a confidence level of 99 percent, athletes most at risk of being subjected to any kind of hazing for athletics were:

  • Male (p=.0009)
  • Non-Greek (p=.0012)
  • Swimmers or divers (p=.00001)
  • Soccer players (p=.0083)
  • Lacrosse players (p=.0016)
  • In the east or south (p=.0017)
  • On a rural campus (p=.0016)
  • On a residential campus (p=.0014)
  • On a campus with a Greek system (p=.0113)
  • In a state with no anti-hazing law (p=.0139)
Although a Greek system on campus is a significant predictor of hazing, it is particularly non-Greeks, however, who are most likely to be involved with athletic hazing.
Profile of Athletes Who Were Hazed and Profile of Their Campuses
Gender % #
Male 62 155,781
Female 38 96,860
Greek % #
Member 11 27,354
Not Member 89 224,261
On Athletic Scholarship % #
Yes 36 91,154
No 64 160,799
NCAA Div. % #
Division I 41 104,052
Division II 22 55,501
Division III 37 93,088
Ethnicity % #
Caucasian 90 226,254
African-American 5 11,516
Other 5 13,752
Region % #
East/NE 41 95,153
South 20 47,025
Midwest 20 46,986
West 19 43,848
Residential % #
Residential 85 205,998
Commuter 15 34,978
Location % #
Urban 32 72,984
Suburban 36 83,678
Rural 32 74,890
Greek System % #
Yes 74 184,304
No 26 63,967
State Law In Place % #
Yes 92 209,346
No 8 18,067
Type % #
Public 41 97,432
Private 59 141,356

When viewing specific groups of athletes, however, we find the picture is somewhat more complex. Using the four groups of athletes defined based on the general severity of their activities, the following tables provide profiles of athletes in each of the four groups:

  • Acceptable Initiation Activities Only
  • Questionable Initiation Activities, not clearly unacceptable
  • Alcohol-related Initiation Activities, not otherwise unacceptable
  • Unacceptable Initiation Activities, other than alcohol-related

Unacceptable Initiation. At a confidence level of 99 percent, athletes most at risk of being subjected to clearly unacceptable and potentially illegal initiation activities, regardless of the involvement of alcohol, are:

  • Male (p=.0001)
  • Swimmers or divers (p=.0001)
  • Football players (p=.005)
  • Water polo players (p=.024) (98% confidence level)
  • In the south or mid-west (p=.009)
Profile of Athletes Who Were Hazed and Profile of Their Campuses
Gender % #
Male 60 95,557
Female 40 63,266
Greek % #
Member 12 18,264
Not Member 88 140,031
On Athletic Scholarship % #
Yes 35 55,983
No 65 102,693
NCAA Div. % #
Division I 43 68,003
Division II 20 31,841
Division III 37 58,978
Ethnicity % #
Caucasian 94 148,542
African-American 3 4,051
Other 3 5,651
Region % #
East/NE 43 63,020
South 18 26,222
Midwest 22 32,899
West 17 25,149
Residential % #
Residential 87 131,828
Commuter 13 20,118
Location % #
Urban 32 45,770
Suburban 35 51,316
Rural 33 48,334
Greek System % #
Yes 76 118,260
No 24 38,231
State Law In Place % #
Yes 93 132,232
No 7 10,711
Type % #
Public 40 60,803
Private 60 98,679

Questionable Initiations. At a confidence level of 96 percent, athletes most at risk of being subjected to questionable, but not unacceptable, initiation activities were: football players (p=.001) in the south or west (p=.0001).

Profile of Athletes Subjected to Questionable Initiation and Profile of Their Campuses

Gender % #
Male 63 135,046
Female 37 80,792
Greek % #
Member 10 22,288
Not Member 90 102,736
On Athletic Scholarship % #
Yes 37 79,268
No 63 135,882
NCAA Div. % #
Division I 41 88,545
Division II 22 48,421
Division III 37 78,873
Ethnicity % #
Caucasian 89 191,653
African-American 5 10,637
Other 6 12,428
Region % #
East/NE 41 81,736
South 21 41,520
Midwest 20 39,286
West 18 35,831
Residential % #
Residential 85 175,417
Commuter 15 30,597
Location % #
Urban 32 62,390
Suburban 37 72,754
Rural 32 62,801
Greek System % #
Yes 74 157,370
No 26 54,286
State Law In Place % #
Yes 92 179,155
No 8 15,534
Type % #
Public 41 83,002
Private 59 120,471

Acceptable Initiation. At a confidence level of 99 percent, athletes most apt to be involved in only acceptable initiation were:

  • Female (p=.014)
  • Greek members (p=.001)
  • Track (p=.009)
  • Fencing (p=.014)
  • Tennis players (p=.038) (97% confidence level)
  • In the mid-west or west (p=.039) (97% confidence level)
  • On commuter campuses (p=.002)
  • On urban campuses (p=.043) (96% confidence level)

Profile of Athletes Involved in Only Acceptable Initiation and Profile of Their Campuses

Gender % #
Male 56 34,707
Female 44 27,180
Greek % #
Member 17 10,558
Not Member 83 51,023
On Athletic Scholarship % #
Yes 36 22,070
No 64 39,817
NCAA Div. % #
Division I 42 25,935
Division II 19 11,598
Division III 39 24,355
Ethnicity % #
Caucasian 90 54,906
African-American 4 2,640
Other 6 3,099
Region % #
East/NE 32 17,645
South 20 11,060
Midwest 28 15,133
West 20 11,109
Residential % #
Residential 81 46,356
Commuter 19 11,018
Location % #
Urban 37 19,950
Suburban 34 18,445
Rural 29 15,927
Greek System % #
Yes 73 44,941
No 27 16,286
State Law In Place % #
Yes 93 50,486
No 7 3,714
Type % #
Public 38 21,712
Private 62 35,395

When the use of alcohol, either during recruitment or later in a drinking contest, is considered the dominant factor, the picture shifts again.

Alcohol on Recruitment. At a confidence level of 99 percent, athletes most at risk of consuming alcohol on recruitment were:

  • On athletic scholarship (p=.0001)
  • NCAA Division I (p=.0001)
  • Swimmers or divers (p=.0001)
  • Lacrosse players (p=.0001)
  • Football players (p=.0001)
  • Soccer players (p=.013)
  • In the east (p=.017)
  • On rural (p=.005), residential campuses (p=.0001)
  • In a state with an anti-hazing law (p=.0001)

Profile of NCAA Athletes Consuming Alcohol on Recruitment Visits and Profile of Their Campuses

Gender % #
Male 62 83,956
Female 38 52,205
Greek % #
Member 14 18,765
Not Member 86 117,227
On Athletic Scholarship % #
Yes 42 57,596
No 58 78,194
NCAA Div % #
Division I 47 64,285
Division II 20 26,785
Division III 33 45,091
Ethnicity % #
Caucasian 93 125,478
African-American 3 4,129
Other 4 5,973
Region % #
East/NE 43 55,040
South 20 24,855
Midwest 21 26,932
West 16 20,200
Residential % #
Residential 87 113,051
Commuter 13 16,359
Location % #
Urban 30 37,218
Suburban 34 41,760
Rural 36 44,257
Greek System % #
Yes 80 107,463
No 20 27,112
State Law In Place % #
Yes 93 113,977
No 7 8,822
Type % #
Public 42 53,282
Private 58 74,664

Drinking Contests for Athletic Team Initiation. At a confidence level of 99 percent, athletes most at risk of being subjected to drinking contests for athletic team initiation were:

  • Swimmers or divers (p=.0001)
  • Lacrosse players (p=.0001)
  • Hockey players (p=.039) (97% confidence level)
  • In the east (p=.0001)
  • On rural campuses (p=.032) (97% confidence level)
  • On residential campuses (p=.0001)
  • In a state with no anti-hazing law (p=.026)

Profile of Athletes Participating in Drinking Contests for Initiation and Profile of Their Campuses

Gender % #
Male 61 66,528
Female 39 42,992
Greek % #
Member 11 12,374
Not Member 89 96,859
On Athletic Scholarship % #
Yes 38 40,961
No 62 68,189
NCAA Div. % #
Division I 38 41,361
Division II 35 37,324
Division III 37 40,835
Ethnicity % #
Caucasian 94 102,390
African-American 2 1,700
Other 4 5,018
Region % #
East/NE 47 48,214
South 16 16,251
Midwest 19 19,528
West 18 17,896
Residential % #
Residential 88 91,560
Commuter 12 12,888
Location % #
Urban 32 31,920
Suburban 32 31,350
Rural 36 35,662
Greek System % #
Yes 75 80,317
No 25 27,444
State Law In Place % #
Yes 91 90,262
No 9 9,436
Type % #
Public 41 42,269
Private 59 60,044

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